Generative AI: Bridging Human Imagination & Digital Reality

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This week’s article is written by Neil Sahota, an IBM Master Inventor, United Nations (UN) Artificial Intelligence (AI) Advisor, and author of the best-seller Own the AI Revolution. It is a companion piece to his interview on Innovating Leadership: Co-Creating Our Future titled Unleashing the Power of Human-AI Collaboration, which aired on May 30, 2023.

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OpenAI is at the forefront of AI research and innovation, leaving the tech community eager to see what is next after their remarkable developments like DALL-E and ChatGPT.

But with emerging technologies becoming increasingly similar, it begs the question: what ties them all together?

The answer is Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), a technology that can create brand-new content, from images to audio files, based on patterns an AI model identifies.

This blog post will explore the world of generative AI, covering everything from A to Z, including definition, techniques, benefits and more.

What is Generative AI?

Generative AI, also referred to as generative adversarial networks (GANs), is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) that enables machines to create new content from scratch based on patterns identified in existing data. In simpler terms, generative AI is an exciting technology that allows AI systems to generate original data like text, audio, images, or videos without relying on pre-existing information. Generative AI models learn patterns and relationships within the input data to create entirely new content.

While generative AI is a powerful tool for creating innovative content, it is also highly complex and requires extensive training and computational resources. In the past, working with generative AI was a complex and time-consuming process that required submitting data via an API or using specialized tools and programming languages like Python. However, recent advancements in this field have made the technology more accessible and user-friendly. Today, pioneers in generative AI are developing new and improved user experiences that allow for simpler and more intuitive interactions. Users can now describe their requests in plain language and even provide feedback on the style, tone, and elements to include in the generated content.

How Does Generative AI Work?

Generative AI uses a prompt, anything from a chat message to a picture, to generate new content similar in style or format.

To illustrate, if you want your AI to paint like Picasso, you need to feed it with as many paintings by the artist as possible. The neural network behind generative AI can learn the unique traits or characteristics of Picasso’s style and then apply them as needed.

This approach applies to models that write texts and books, create interior and fashion designs, non-existent landscapes, music, and many other applications. It achieves this through a range of techniques, which include:

1. GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks)

The Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is a frequently utilized technique in generative AI. Consisting of two neural networks:

  • Generator
  • Discriminator

The generator produces new data that looks like the original data, and the discriminator distinguishes between the generated data and the source data. Based on the discriminator’s feedback, this feedback loop enables the generator to learn and improve over time.

2. VAEs (Variational Autoencoders)

In the realm of generative AI, a Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) method allows for the encoding of input into a compressed code into a smaller dimensional representation, which is then duplicated and stored by the decoder. In other words, VAEs are a type of neural network that can compress data into a smaller representation while retaining important features of the original data. This compression is done in a way that allows the data to be manipulated and generated in new ways, making it a powerful tool for data analysis, image and audio generation, and more. This compressed code preserves the original data’s important information while capturing its distribution in a much more compact form.

Essentially, encoding allows for the efficient representation of large datasets in a condensed form, which can be useful for various applications such as data storage, transfer, and analysis. Furthermore, encoding data in a compressed form also enables the generation of new data that share similar patterns and structures to the original dataset.

3. Transformers

Initially developed to understand images and languages, transformers have evolved to perform classification tasks and generate content. One of the most well-known transformer models is GPT-3, which uses cognitive attention to measure the significance of input data parts.

Transformers use a data sequence to process the input into the output, making them highly efficient in contexts where the data’s context matters. This technology is commonly used to translate or generate texts, where individual words cannot convey the intended meaning without the surrounding context. Additionally, transformers play a significant role in creating foundation models that can transform natural language requests into commands such as generating images or text based on user descriptions.

Google first introduced the concept of transformers in a 2017 research paper. The paper outlined a deep neural network that learns context, following relationships in sequential input, such as the words in a sentence. As a result, transformers have become a vital component in Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications.

What is Generative Modeling?

Generative modeling is an AI-driven approach that leverages statistics and probability to create a virtual representation or abstraction of real-world phenomena. Its purpose is to allow computers to comprehend the world around us, leading to predictions about the probabilities of certain subjects based on modeled data. By processing vast amounts of training data, unsupervised machine learning algorithms make deductions about the data and distill it down to its fundamental digital essence. This can then be used to model similar or indistinguishable data from the real world. For example, a generative model might be trained on a dataset of images of rabbits to generate new images that have never existed before but look realistic.

Generative modeling is distinct from discriminative modeling, which identifies and categorizes existing data. While a generative model creates something new, a discriminative model recognizes tags and sorts data. In practice, both models can be combined to enhance each other’s capabilities. A generative model can be trained to fool a discriminative model into thinking its generated data is real, and through successive training, both models become more sophisticated.

Why Do We Need Generative Models?

Generative models enable us to explore the possibilities of the world around us and imagine things that have never existed before. They are a powerful tool that can be used to generate new and diverse data, train machine learning models, and create new content in creative applications. Their ability to adapt to new data and perform well in a variety of applications makes them an essential tool for researchers, developers, and creatives alike.

One of the main advantages of generative models is their ability to produce large amounts of synthetic data, which can be utilized to train machine learning models in scenarios where real-world data is scarce or expensive to obtain. For instance, generative models can be used in the healthcare industry to generate synthetic medical images to train diagnostic models, reducing the need for invasive and expensive medical procedures.

How is Generative AI Used?

The potential of generative AI application goes far beyond its current use in social media avatars and text-to-image converters, as it can yield content that closely resembles human-generated one.

Let’s delve into how generative AI is used across various industries and contexts.

Image Generation

Image generation has become an essential tool for various industries, including fashion, architecture, and interior design, where it is used to create product designs and visualizations. The German sportswear brand Adidas, for instance, has utilized generative AI to design unique shoe patterns, while the Swedish furniture company IKEA has used the technology to create furniture and home décor products.

In addition, the film and video game industry also benefits from image generation, as it helps create realistic visual effects and virtual environments. Notably, Roblox, a popular online game platform, has recently integrated generative AI into its game development process, allowing developers to create more interactive and realistic player experiences. With generative AI, game developers can easily create complex 3D models, objects, and environments that populate the game world.

Moreover, generative AI has potential applications in medical imaging. For example, NVIDIA researchers have developed a generative model capable of generating synthetic medical images that can be used to train doctors and healthcare professionals in image analysis. By leveraging this technology, healthcare professionals can improve their diagnosis and training accuracy, ultimately leading to better patient outcomes.

Music Generation

Generative AI has opened up a new world of possibilities in the field of music by enabling the creation of new musical pieces by analyzing existing musical patterns and generating new ones based on the learned patterns.

This technology has a range of potential applications, such as:

  • Assisting composers in creating new music,
  • Generating background music for videos,
  • Creating personalized playlists for users.

One notable example is Amper Music AI music generator, a cloud-based platform that content creators, including filmmakers, podcasters, and YouTubers, use to add original music to their productions. Users can input the type of instruments, mood, tempo, style, and other parameters, and the platform’s AI algorithm creates original music tracks based on those inputs in real time.

In classical music, researchers from the University of Surrey and the University of Kingston have developed a system called AIVA (Artificial Intelligence Virtual Artist) that can compose classical music. AIVA has been used to compose pieces for live orchestras and has gained recognition from prominent figures in the music industry.

Video Generation

Video generation using generative AI involves creating new videos by analyzing and learning from existing video data. This technology has several potential applications, such as creating personalized video content, generating visual effects for films and TV shows, and even creating training videos for industries such as healthcare and engineering. This generation found its application in RunwayML, a platform that generates realistic videos from text descriptions. Users can input a text description of a scene, and the platform’s algorithm generates a video of the scene, complete with realistic lighting, camera movements, and other visual effects.

DALL-E, a research project by OpenAI can generate images and even videos from textual descriptions. In one example, DALL-E generated a short video of a snail made out of a stack of staplers based on a textual description of the scene.

In the film industry, generative AI has been used to create visual effects for movies and TV shows. For instance, Industrial Light and Magic (ILM), a renowned visual effects studio, employed GANs to digitally rejuvenate Mark Hamill’s appearance to portray a younger Luke Skywalker in the TV series “The Book of Boba Fett.”

Another example is the use of AI to generate deepfake videos, which can manipulate existing videos to show individuals doing things they never did or saying things they never said.

Chatbot Generation

Chatbot generation enables conversational agents to interact with users in natural language, and many companies have incorporated this technology into their customer service and marketing strategies. In addition, advancements in speech recognition technology have enabled chatbots to interact with users through voice commands.

OpenAI’s GPT-3 is an excellent example of chatbot generation using generative AI. GPT-3 is an extensive language model that can generate human-like responses to text inputs.

Another language model that came out in 2021 is Google’s MUM (Multitask Unified Model). It was designed to understand multiple languages and contexts simultaneously, allowing for more complex and nuanced conversations with chatbots.

In the healthcare industry, chatbots and voice assistants are increasingly used to support mental health care. For instance, Woebot Health offers a chatbot that uses cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques to help users manage anxiety and depression.

Chatbots have also been used in the finance industry to improve customer service and support. Bank of America’s chatbot, Erica, can assist customers with account inquiries, money transfers, and other financial tasks.

Meanwhile, generative AI for e-commerce is becoming increasingly popular as it helps to create a more personalized and engaging shopping experience for customers. For illustration, Zara‘s chatbot allows customers to browse and shop for products through a conversational interface.

What are the Advantages of Generative AI?

In addition to the specific use cases mentioned earlier, another advantage of using generative AI is enhancing robotic control. Generative modeling in machine learning can greatly improve the control of robots. By using algorithms that learn from data and make unbiased decisions, we can reduce biases and ensure fairness and accuracy in decision-making processes.

Generative AI can also enhance the accuracy of robotic control systems by generating new data that improves the algorithm’s performance. This allows for physical experimentation and testing of theories, improving our understanding of complex concepts. Reinforcing machine learning models with generative modeling can make robots more efficient and effective in their tasks, leading to more reliable and consistent performance. These advancements have the potential to enable robots to perform increasingly complex tasks in various industries.

1. Creating Diverse Content with Automation

Generative AI offers an automated way to generate diverse content, from text and images to video and code. It can even provide answers to questions and create new content such as translations, summaries, and analyses. This is particularly beneficial for students and researchers, who can save time and easily access vast information and resources. The possibilities for creating unique and valuable content are virtually limitless.

2. Personalizing Content Creation

Generative AI models have a remarkable ability to create personalized content based on user preferences. Once trained, they can produce content tailored to the users’ preferences. This content is more likely to resonate with the intended audience, which can benefit businesses seeking more effective marketing campaigns. Using generative AI for marketing, they can produce content that better connects with their target customers.

The ability to create personalized content is a key benefit of using generative AI models that can make a significant difference in reaching and engaging with customers.

What are the Limitations of Generative AI?

Generative AI presents exciting data exploration and problem-solving possibilities, but its implementation and regulation pose unique challenges. Responsible and ethical use of Generative AI is crucial in today’s world.

Some of the main limitations include:

1. Errors and Biases in Generative AI Outputs

Generative AI has a drawback when it comes to the quality of generated outputs. Although these systems are capable of producing natural language and creative outputs, they may also contain errors and artifacts. This could be due to poor training, lack of data, or an overly complex model. For example, some generative AI models, like ChatGPT, may struggle with providing accurate and relevant responses to recent events. Meanwhile, Google Bard’s advertisement claimed that the James Webb Space Telescope was used to take the first pictures of a planet outside the Solar System, which was factually incorrect. It is necessary to note that the quality of outputs depends on the quality of datasets and training sets used. A biased training set can lead to biased results, ultimately affecting the reliability and accuracy of the generated outputs.

2. Intellectual Property and Privacy Issues

ChatGPT was launched in November 2022 to both applause and critique. As a chatbot, it has proven to be one of the most advanced, capable of understanding natural language and providing human-like responses. However, the public’s use of ChatGPT has revealed its potential for academic and workplace dishonesty. Moreover, the use of Generative AI models like ChatGPT raises concerns about intellectual property rights.

These models are trained using large datasets scraped from the internet, which means the generated content may be based on the works of other creators and artists. Using such a service exposes individuals and organizations to legal responsibilities, including infringement of intellectual property rights and privacy violations. For instance, personal or sensitive information may be generated by a particular service, posing a threat to privacy rights.

3. Intricacy and Technical Hurdles

Generative AI technology can be challenging to comprehend and utilize, which is a significant disadvantage. This can discourage some businesses from implementing it in their operations due to its complexity and unfamiliarity. Although free AI services like ChatGPT and Dall-E are available, they have their limitations. For instance, ChatGPT may experience downtimes during peak usage, and Dall-E restricts users to generate only 50 images for the first month, and 15 images per month thereafter.

Paid AI services offer more reliability and flexibility, but choosing the best one among the plethora of companies can be daunting. Furthermore, incorporating in-house Generative AI capabilities comes with technical challenges, as models can be computationally expensive and inefficient.

4. Adversarial Attacks

Adversarial attacks are a real threat to generative AI, where the inputs are intentionally manipulated to generate unexpected or harmful outcomes.

These attacks can take many forms, including:

  • Modifying input data,
  • Adding noise,
  • Generating new data.

Such attacks are especially worrisome in image and speech recognition applications, where manipulated outputs can have significant consequences. However, researchers and developers are taking several steps to prevent adversarial attacks. These include adding noise during training, creating more robust models, and using adversarial training to recognize and respond to these attacks.

The Effects of Generative AI on the Job Market

Generative AI has raised concerns about its impact on the job market, especially in creative industries. Past predictions about AI’s effect on jobs have been mixed, with some saying that low-skill jobs would be affected, while others argued that highly-skilled knowledge workers would bear the brunt of the changes. However, the tight labor market in recent years has somewhat suppressed these dire predictions. According to a recent Harris Poll, many workers are wary of generative AI, with 50% expressing distrust of the technology.

In contrast, The Atlantic has stated that predicting the exact impact of generative AI on the job market is difficult, but it is evident that it will have a significant effect on workers with a college education. Entrepreneurs create the future instead of predicting it, and in recent years, creative human intelligence has advanced the state of generative AI. Although it is challenging to predict precisely how generative AI will affect jobs, history has shown that technology’s impact on jobs can be unpredictable.

While many low-skill and high-skill jobs will be affected by the increased capabilities of computers, many current occupations will thrive, and new ones will emerge, driven by human creativity and imagination.

Generative AI: Key Takeaways

From art and design to healthcare and finance, the ability to generate new content based on existing data patterns can bring significant benefits to businesses and individuals alike.

Among others, these benefits include:

  • Enhancing robotic control,
  • Creating diverse content with automation,
  • Personalizing content creation.

As this field continues to evolve, we can expect to see even more impressive and innovative use cases emerge, making generative AI an exciting area to watch in the coming years.

 

ABOUT THE GUEST:

Neil Sahota (萨冠军) is an IBM Master Inventor, United Nations (UN) Artificial Intelligence (AI) Advisor, author of the best-seller Own the AI Revolution and sought-after speaker. With 20+ years of business experience, Neil works to inspire clients and business partners to foster innovation and develop next generation products/solutions powered by AI.

 

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